Job Design - Explained
What is Job Design?
If you still have questions or prefer to get help directly from an agent, please submit a request.
We’ll get back to you as soon as possible.
- Marketing, Advertising, Sales & PR
- Accounting, Taxation, and Reporting
- Professionalism & Career Development
Law, Transactions, & Risk Management
Government, Legal System, Administrative Law, & Constitutional Law Legal Disputes - Civil & Criminal Law Agency Law HR, Employment, Labor, & Discrimination Business Entities, Corporate Governance & Ownership Business Transactions, Antitrust, & Securities Law Real Estate, Personal, & Intellectual Property Commercial Law: Contract, Payments, Security Interests, & Bankruptcy Consumer Protection Insurance & Risk Management Immigration Law Environmental Protection Law Inheritance, Estates, and Trusts
- Business Management & Operations
- Economics, Finance, & Analytics
Table of ContentsWhat is Job design?What are the Performance Objectives of Job Design?What is Job Methods Analysis?What is Motion Study?What is Work Measurement?What is a Job Time Study?What are Predetermined Motion TimesWhat is Work Sampling?What is Ergonomics?
What is Job design?
Job design is simply the creation of a job (the nature of the work, responsibilities, accountability, etc.) to allow an organization to achieve its objectives.
What are the Performance Objectives of Job Design?
- Quality - The ability to produce high-quality products through avoiding errors.
- Speed - The ability to carry out operations and respond promptly to production needs.
- Dependability - Dependable supply of goods and services.
- Flexibility - The ability of the operation to change the nature of its activities (new product flexibility, mix flexibility, volume flexibility, and delivery flexibility).
- Cost - Efficiency (the ratio of output to labor input) and productivity reduce costs.
What is Job Methods Analysis?
Methods analysis of a job involves dividing and analyzing a job pursuant to the following steps.
- Select: Identify the tasks relevant to the position.
- Record: Observe and document the methods of performing the selected tasks to identify unnecessary material movements and unnecessary delay periods.
- Examine: Look at the current method for ways in which tasks can be eliminated, combined, rearranged and simplified.
- Develop: Choose the best alternative method, create specifications (tooling, resources, skills, etc.) and obtain approval for this method.
- Install: Implement the new method.
- Maintain: Continuously monitor and review this activity.
What is Motion Study?
Motion study is the study of the individual human motions to generate efficiency.
Motion study, a component of of scientific management, is used in the the design of repetitive, simplified jobs with the task specialization which was a feature of the mass production system.
The principles are generally categorized according to:
- efficient use of the human body
- efficient arrangement of the workplace, and
- efficient use of equipment and machinery.
What is Work Measurement?
Work measurement is carried out to determine the length of time it will take to undertake a particular task.
This is important to determine pay rates and to ensure that each stage in a production line system is of an equal or balanced duration.
Usually the method study and work measurement activities are undertaken together to develop time as well as method standards.
This allows for establishing benchmarks for performance.
What is a Job Time Study?
A Time Study is the use of statistical techniques to arrive at a standard time for performing one cycle of a repetitive job.
Generally, the time study is carried out by observing a task a number of times.
The steps in a time study are as follows:
- Establish the Standard Job Method: Conduct a method study to determine the optimal method for doing a job.
- Break the Job into Elements: Break the job into a number of easily measurable tasks to allow for a more accurate calculation of standard time.
- Study the Job: Record and take time measurements of each task on an observation sheet.
- Rate the Worker’s Performance: Rate the observed worker’s performance in order to achieve a true time rating for the task.
- Compute the Average Time: Take an average of the sample of job cycles - called the “cycle time”.
- Compute the Normal Time: Adjust the cycle time for the efficiency and speed of the worker who was observed. The normal time is calculated multiplying the cycle time the performance rating factors. Normal Time (NT) = cycle time (CT) x rating factor (RF)
- Compute the Standard Time: The standard time is computed adjusting the normal time by an allowance factor to take account of unavoidable delays. The standard time is calculated as Standard Time (ST) = Normal Time (NT) x allowance
What are Predetermined Motion Times
Another method for calculating standard times without a time study is to use predetermined motion time system (PMTS). The PMTS provides generic times for standard micromotions such as reach, move, and release which are common to many jobs.
The standard item for the job is then constructed breaking down the job into micromotions that can then be assigned a time from the motion time database.
The standard time for the job is the sum of these micromotion times.
What is Work Sampling?
Work Sampling is a method for determining the proportion of time a worker or machine spends on various activities.
It can be used to identify and analyze the proportion of non-repetitive tasks that are performed in most jobs.
The basic steps in work sampling are indicated below:
- Define the job activities: All possible activities must be categorized for a particular job.
- Determine the number of observations in the work sample: This is necessary to determine accuracy of the estimate for the amount of time the worker is in a given categorized state. For a normally distributed sample, the sample size can be estimated using the following formula: n = (z/e)2 * p(1 – p)
where n = sample size
z = number of standard deviation from the mean for the desired level of confidence
e = the degree of allowable error in the sample estimate
p = the estimated proportion of time spent on a work activity
The accuracy of the estimated proportion p is usually expressed in terms of an allowable degree of error e. The degree of confidence would normally be 95% (giving a z value of 1.96) or 99% (giving a z value of 2.58).
- Determine the length of the sampling period: There must be sufficient sample time to record random samples.
- Conduct the work sampling study and record the observations: Calculate the sample and calculate the proportion (p) dividing the number of observations for a particular activity the total number of observations.
- Periodically re-compute the sample size required: Over time, recompute the sample size based on the proportions actually observed.
What is Ergonomics?
Ergonomics is the science of designing the job to fit the worker by adapting tasks, work stations, tools, and equipment.
The objective is to maximize productive and to minimize costs (the physiological or health cost to the worker). More specifically, it seeks to reduce the risks of musculoskeletal injuries resulting from handling materials manually.
The job design should ensure proper selection and use of tools, job methods, workstation layouts and materials that impose no undue stress and strain on the worker.
Ergonomics draws on a number of scientific disciplines, including physiology, biomechanics, psychology, anthropometry, industrial hygiene, and kinesiology.
The principles of Ergonomics include:
- Correct, neutral posture
- Cleanliness and orderliness
- Lifting properly (Correct angle and in Power Zone)
- Planning (Ergonomics in Mind)
- Proper handholds
- Pulling vs. Pushing (Preferable)
- Staging (correct placement of tools)
- Task Rotation