Contract Theory - Explained
What is Contract Theory?
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What is Contract Theory?
Contract theory is a theory that seeks to understand how contractual arrangements such as legal agreements are made. This theory examines the existence of a contract and how it was constructed or developed.
Contract theory entails an analysis of what both parties in a contract stand to gain, and their conflicting interests. Through the theory, a clear understanding of the formation of both formal and informal contracts is achieved.
In economics, contract theory examines the behavior of parties in a contract, their interests, incentives, and performance.
What are the Three Models of Contract Theory?
There are three frameworks of models of the contract theory, these models outline actions that parties can take under specific circumstances and structures in the contract. These models are:
- The adverse selection model: this reflects the principal of a contract as an individual with more information than the other party. Through the better knowledge he has, he is able to influence our distort the market process. Such individuals are often insured by insurance which serves as a protection for the level of information they hold.
- A moral hazard model: in this model, a principal is liable to take on risks which are absorbed by the other party in the contract. This model entails the presence of information asymmetry and a contract structure that empowers the other party to alter the risky behaviors of the principal
- The signaling model: this model features a party who is knowledgeable and possesses qualities he clearly conveys to the principal. In most cases, the Knowledge is transferred or signaled to another party for mutual understanding and satisfaction in the contract.
- What is a Unilateral Contract vs a Bilateral Contract?
- What is an Express Contract vs an Implied Contract?
- What are the requirements to form a Contract (Offer, Acceptance, Consideration)?
- What is an Enforceable Contract vs. a Valid Contract?
- What is a Void Contract vs a Voidable Contract?
- Adhesion Contract
- What is Mental Capacity to contract?
- What is the requirement of a Lawful Purpose?
- What are common types of Voidable Contract?
- When does an offer to contact terminate?
- Counterparty Definition
- Mirror Image Rule?
- Rule for Sale of Goods
- Silence is Not Acceptance?
- Mailbox Rule
- Shrink-wrap Agreement Definition
- Click-Wrap Agreement Definition
- What is Consideration?
- What is Promissory Estoppel?
- When is a contract required to be in writing Statute of Frauds?
- What type of writing satisfies the statute of frauds?
- Exceptions to the Statute of Fraud
- Documents Under Seal
- Who Can Sign Contracts on Behalf of a Company?
- E-Sign Act
- Privity of Contract
- Who are third-party beneficiaries to a contract?
- What is assignment and delegation of a contract?
- What is Performance, Substantial Performance, and Breach of a contract?
- What is performance of a Divisible Contract?
- When is a party's duty of performance discharged?
- What is tender performance of a contract?
- What are Impossibility and Impracticability
- What is a Frustration of Purpose?
- Acceleration Clause (Contracts) Definition
- What is Efficient Breach?
- Organization of a Contract
- Contract Representations & Warranties
- Contract Covenants
- What rules does a court follow in interpreting a contract?
- What is the Parol Evidence Rule?
- What is a complete integration vs a partial integration?
- Exceptions to the Parol Evidence Rule
- Patent and Latent Ambiguity in a Contract
- Service Level Agreement Definition
- Offtake Agreement