Legal Duty of Care - Explained
What is the Duty of Care Element in a Negligence Action?
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What is the Duty of Care?
The first element of a negligence tort is establishing the nature and extent of the defendant's duty to the plaintiff.
Next Article: Breach of Duty of Care Return to: TORT LAW
What is a Legal Duty under Tort Law?
A duty generally arises pursuant to one's conduct or activity, such as assuming a position of authority, control, or other special relationship with someone.
Any form of activity in the presence of or otherwise affecting a third party gives rise to a duty of care. A special relationship between individuals may include: parent-child, doctor-patient, attorney-client, etc.
The extent of a person's duty to others is based upon the nature (or genesis) of that duty.
Once the nature of the duty is determined, the individual owing the duty must use reasonable care and skill in her actions.
That is, an individual must act reasonably in a given situation (based upon the nature of the duty owed) to avoid causing harm to those to whom she owes a duty.
The greater the risk or potential harm to others, the greater the level of care required to meet the duty owed.
- Example: An individual who decides to drive an automobile owes a duty of care to other motorists and pedestrians. An individual walking on the sidewalk with others owes a duty not to walk carelessly and bump into others.
How do you feel about the duty to act reasonably? What level of interaction between individuals gives rise to a duty? What types of factors should contribute to the establishment and strength of the duty between individuals?
Eric is a lifeguard by profession. He is taking a leisurely strong along the lake when he notices a person in distress. Does Eric have a duty to attempt to rescue the individual drowning individual?
- No. Eric has no legal duty to the individual drowning. A legal duty of care is a requirement that a person act toward others and the public with watchfulness, attention, caution, and prudence that a reasonable person in the circumstances would. This is, it is a legal obligation that is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. If a person's actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence. In the example from the practice question, Eric being a lifeguard, alone, does not obligate him to rescue the person. If, however, Eric on duty at the lake or were to begin to undertake help, he would incur a duty to the individual.
- Tort Law (Intro)
- What are Torts?
- What are the types of torts?
- What are Intentional Torts?
- Unintentional Tort
- Assault and Battery?
- Intentional Infliction of Emotions Distress?
- Invasion of Privacy?
- False Imprisonment?
- Malicious Prosecution?
- Defenses to Defamation?
- Absolute Privilege
- Defamation and 1st Amendment Considerations?
- Intentional Interference with Contractual Relations?
- What is Negligence?
- Negligence A Duty of Care?
- Negligence Breach of Duty of Care?
- What are common defenses to negligence actions?
- What is Strict Liability?
- Strict Liability Causes of Action Examples
- Strict Products Liability
- What defenses exist to strict product liability actions?
- Compensatory damages?
- Punitive damages?
- Treble Damages