Requirements for Holder in Due Course Status - Explained
What is Required to be a Holder in Due Course?
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What are the requirements for holder in due course?
To qualify as a HDC, the holder of the commercial paper must meet the following requirements:
Value - The holder must take the instrument for value. This means that the holder must provide money or goods for the instrument. The transfer cannot be a gift or inheritance.
Good Faith - The holder must receive the instrument in good faith. This means that the holder cannot have the intent to defraud anyone in receiving the instrument. It is easy to imagine any number of schemes in which a transferor would try to manipulate the law by transferring an instrument to a holder with a greater right to repayment.
Unaware of Defenses - The holder cannot have notice that there is a valid defense to enforcement of the instrument. This is generally deemed to be actual notice, but constructive notice from the situation could disqualify the individual as well.
HDC status is determined at the time that the holder receives the instrument. If the holder meets the above requirement at the moment when she takes possession, she is a HDC. It does not matter if afterwards she learns of a potential defense. Each of the elements for HDC status is discussed separately.
Next Article: Holder in Due Course - Receive Instrument for Value Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
What do you think about the requirements to qualify as a HDC? Can you identify any objectives behind these requirements? Should there be more or less requirements? Why or why not?
Brad enters into a contract to purchase equipment from Claire. Brad issues a promissory note to Claire as payment. Claire delivers the equipment, but Brad believes that the equipment does not meet the standards represented in the contract. He demands that Claire replace the equipment or he will not pay the note if presented. Claire immediately sells the instrument to Doug, who is unaware of the dispute between Brad and Claire. If Doug refuses to pay the note when Doug presents it, what are Doug's rights? How does that affect Brad and Claire's position?
- Commercial Paper (Intro)
- What is Commercial Paper?
- Negotiable Instrument
- What are the common types of commercial paper?
- Promissory Note
- Cashier's Check
- Convenience Check
- Certified Check
- Substitute Check
- Bill of Exchange
- Bank Draft Definition
- Sight Draft Definition
- Bankers Acceptance
- Who is a Holder of a negotiable instrument?
- Commercial Paper Funding Program
- What is Negotiability and why is it important?
- What is required for commercial paper to be negotiable?
- Sum Certain (Contracts)
- Inflation Adjustment Clause
- When does commercial paper contain an Unconditional promise to pay?
- Backup Line of Credit
- What is Payable on Demand or Payable on Time?
- What is Order Paper and Bearer Paper?
- Bearer Form
- How is a payee identified on the negotiable instrument?
- What rules does the court apply in determining negotiability?
- How is commercial paper negotiated to a holder?
- What is Transfer of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorsement of a negotiable instrument?
- What are the various types of indorsement?
- Bank Endorsement
- Blank Endorsement
- Accommodation Endorsement
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
- What effect does a negotiable instrument have on the underlying obligation?
- What is a holder in due course?
- What are the requirements for a holder to become a holder in due course?
- Receive an instrument for value?
- Receive an instrument in good faith?
- Receive an instrument without notice of a valid defense?
- How does discharge of the Underlying Obligation affect a holder in due course?
- What is the Shelter Rule?
- Can you limit a transferee from becoming a holder in due course?
- Personal Defenses?
- Real Defenses?
- What is a Claim in Recoupment?
- What are the rights of a holder in due course if the instrument involves a consumer transaction?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Forged?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Stolen?
- Guaranty or Guarantee
- Letter of Guarantee
- Personal Guarantee
What is the role of a Guarantor or Surety of a negotiable instrument?
- Accommodation Paper Definition
- Secondary Liability
- Avalize Definition
- What is an Accord & Satisfaction?
- What is primary and secondary liability on an instrument?
- What is Drawer or Maker Liability for a negotiable instrument?
- What is Transferor Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorser Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Presentment Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is a warrantors liability for a dishonored note or draft?
- What is the time limitation for warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- When are the warranties of a negotiable instrument discharged?