Stolen Negotiable Instrument and Holder Status - Explained
What happens when a Negotiable Instrument is Stolen?
If you still have questions or prefer to get help directly from an agent, please submit a request.
We’ll get back to you as soon as possible.
- Marketing, Advertising, Sales & PR
- Accounting, Taxation, and Reporting
- Professionalism & Career Development
Law, Transactions, & Risk Management
Government, Legal System, Administrative Law, & Constitutional Law Legal Disputes - Civil & Criminal Law Agency Law HR, Employment, Labor, & Discrimination Business Entities, Corporate Governance & Ownership Business Transactions, Antitrust, & Securities Law Real Estate, Personal, & Intellectual Property Commercial Law: Contract, Payments, Security Interests, & Bankruptcy Consumer Protection Insurance & Risk Management Immigration Law Environmental Protection Law Inheritance, Estates, and Trusts
- Business Management & Operations
- Economics, Finance, & Analytics
What is the result if a negotiable instrument is stolen?
A negotiable instrument made out to a specific individual is order paper. If the instrument is stolen, the thief can only transfer it by altering or forging the payees signature. As such, a transferee of stolen, forged order paper is not a holder or holder in due course and therefore does not take free of the payor's defenses. Bearer paper, on the other hand, may be transferred by anyone in possession of the instrument. A thief can negotiate stolen bearer paper to a holder. A holder of the paper would be subject to a payor's personal defenses or a claim by a payee that the instrument was stolen. In contrast, a holder in due course of stolen bearer paper takes the instrument free of the claims of the payor that it was stolen.
Note: Special rules apply when the theft of the negotiable instrument is carried about by an agent (such as an employee) of the payor. If an agent misappropriates an instrument, the principal may be liable on the instrument based upon the authority of the agent. The principal has a claim to the instrument or its proceeds against the agent and subsequent takers unless a subsequent transferee is a holder in due course.
Next Article: Guarantor or Surety of a Negotiable Instrument Back to: COMMERCIAL PAPER
How do you feel about the ability of a HDC who receives an instrument from a holder to enforce the instrument? Why does it matter whether the thief is also a forger? Should the interests of the payor be balanced against the interest of the HDC in this situation? Why or why not?
Eric executes a promissory note payable to Amanda or order. Tommy steals the note and endorses Amanda's name. He then sells the note to Max, who is unaware of the forgery. What is Eric's obligation to pay the instrument? What rights does Amanda have? What are Max's rights?
- Commercial Paper (Intro)
- What is Commercial Paper?
- Negotiable Instrument
- What are the common types of commercial paper?
- Promissory Note
- Cashier's Check
- Convenience Check
- Certified Check
- Substitute Check
- Bill of Exchange
- Bank Draft Definition
- Sight Draft Definition
- Bankers Acceptance
- Who is a Holder of a negotiable instrument?
- Commercial Paper Funding Program
- What is Negotiability and why is it important?
- What is required for commercial paper to be negotiable?
- Sum Certain (Contracts)
- Inflation Adjustment Clause
- When does commercial paper contain an Unconditional promise to pay?
- Backup Line of Credit
- What is Payable on Demand or Payable on Time?
- What is Order Paper and Bearer Paper?
- Bearer Form
- How is a payee identified on the negotiable instrument?
- What rules does the court apply in determining negotiability?
- How is commercial paper negotiated to a holder?
- What is Transfer of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorsement of a negotiable instrument?
- What are the various types of indorsement?
- Bank Endorsement
- Blank Endorsement
- Accommodation Endorsement
- How does a holder receive payment on a negotiable instrument?
- Who is potentially liable on (or obligated to pay) a negotiable instrument?
- When is an individual liable for a representative signing a negotiable instrument?
- What rules apply if a holder loses a negotiable instrument?
- When is payment of a negotiable instrument overdue?
- What effect does a negotiable instrument have on the underlying obligation?
- What is a holder in due course?
- What are the requirements for a holder to become a holder in due course?
- Receive an instrument for value?
- Receive an instrument in good faith?
- Receive an instrument without notice of a valid defense?
- How does discharge of the Underlying Obligation affect a holder in due course?
- What is the Shelter Rule?
- Can you limit a transferee from becoming a holder in due course?
- Personal Defenses?
- Real Defenses?
- What is a Claim in Recoupment?
- What are the rights of a holder in due course if the instrument involves a consumer transaction?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Forged?
- What happens if a negotiable instrument is Stolen?
- Guaranty or Guarantee
- Letter of Guarantee
- Personal Guarantee
What is the role of a Guarantor or Surety of a negotiable instrument?
- Accommodation Paper Definition
- Secondary Liability
- Avalize Definition
- What is an Accord & Satisfaction?
- What is primary and secondary liability on an instrument?
- What is Drawer or Maker Liability for a negotiable instrument?
- What is Transferor Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Indorser Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is Presentment Warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- What is a warrantors liability for a dishonored note or draft?
- What is the time limitation for warranty of a negotiable instrument?
- When are the warranties of a negotiable instrument discharged?